Albatross: A player who remains three strokes under par on a fairway plays a (very rare) albatross. This is most likely to happen on a par-5 hole.
Air shot: Attempt at a shot but one which misses the ball. Since the latest rule change, no longer counts as a stroke.
Approach: A shot over a short distance with the purpose of reaching the green and getting the ball as close as possible to the flag.
Bag: The golf bag is often simply referred to as bag.
Birdie: Score of one stroke under par on a hole.
Bogey: Score of one stroke over par on a hole. A double bogey is, accordingly, a score of two strokes over par on a hole. A triple bogey is a score of three strokes over par.
Break: curve followed by the ball rolling on the green when the green is not level.
Bunker (sand obstacle): deeper area of ground filled with sand, which is usually close to the green or on the fairway.
Cup: a cup is the inset in the hole or the hole itself
Cart: motorised buggy which carries golfers and their clubs around the golf course.
Chip: an approach shot from the immediate vicinity of the green, intended to get the ball, in low flight, into the hole where possible, or at least close to the hole.
Club (golf club): a club with a head made of wood, iron or synthetic materials. Clubs have different loft angles, which make it possible to play shots of varying distances with the same swing. (Maximum 14 clubs). There are three different types of club: woods, irons and putters.
Clubhouse: as in many other kinds of sport, the building housing changing rooms, restaurant, bar and other facilities.
Dogleg: hole with a fairway that bends to the left or right.
Drive: the first shot from the teeing ground. On a long hole, usually hit with a driver.
Driver: the club with the longest shaft for the farthest distances, used almost exclusively from the teeing ground.
Driving range: the driving range is the practice area.
Drop: letting the ball fall to the ground from your hand in accordance with the rules of golf in order to bring it back into play – from knee height.
Divot: a piece of turf removed with a club when playing a shot. It must be replaced and pressed in immediately in accordance with etiquette.
Eagle: a score two strokes under par, for instance, a three on a par-5 hole.
Etiquette: code of good manners towards fellow players on the course. Etiquette covers guidelines regarding safety, courtesy and consideration, and priority on the course and care of the course.
Fairway: the expanse of grassed area between teeing ground and green,where the grass is cut short.
Flight: describes a group of golfers, usually consisting of two or three players but never more than four.
Fore: internationally customary warning shout by a player where a risk is posed by a wrongly hit ball which could endanger the other players on the golf course.
Green: a surface area with particularly short grass prepared for putting, where the placement of the hole is often changed.
Green fee: fee payable by a non-member in order to play on a course.
Greenkeeper: the member of staff of a golf club who is responsible for tending the course.
Grip: describes both the way in which a player holds a club in their hands and that part of the club (made of leather or rubber) where the club is held.
Handicap Index: term used for the playing potential of amateurs. Professionals do not have a handicap.
Hole-in-one: playing a fairway with just one shot from the teeing ground into the hole (also called ace).
Links: a “links course” is a golf course which has been laid out on sand dunes on a sea shore.
Order of merit: annual results table.
Par: par is the number of strokes which has been laid down as the ideal number of shots for a hole or course. For example, a par-4 hole should be played in four strokes.
Penalty (penalty stroke): number of strokes stipulated in the rules, which a player has to add to their score when infringing the rules during the game.
PGA: abbreviation for the Professional Golfers’ Association. PGAs are the professional associations of golf professionals. The national PGA in Switzerland is the Swiss PGA.
Pin position: describes the position of the flag stick on the green. The pin position is changed regularly to protect the green.
Pitch: a short stroke where the ball descends as steeply as possible so that it does not roll for long but comes to rest as quickly as possible.
Pitching wedge: a club (iron) with a very high loft which, after the moment of impact, makes the ball rise and fall quickly and prevents it from rolling far. The pitching wedge is used for approach shots (pitches) around the green in particular.
Pitch mark: this expression describes an indentation in the green caused by a ball landing on it. It is good etiquette to repair this pitch mark on the green.
Pro: abbreviation for "professional", a professional golfer who either gives golf lessons (teaching pro) or earns a living from prize money (playing pro).
Pro-Am: a competition in which professionals and amateurs form a team.
Pro shop: shop which is generally run by the pro and where the equipment and clothing required for playing golf can be purchased.
Putt: a putt is a stroke usually made with a putter on a green. The ball rolls on the ground rather than flying through the air.
Putter: club with a vertical striking surface or face, which is used on the green to roll the ball into the hole.
Putting green: green area used for putting practice.
Range fee: fee payable in advance by a guest at another golf club for the use of the driving range and other practice facilities.
Rough: describes the areas around the fairways and greens where the grass is left to grow longer than on the fairways.
Score: the score is written down on the score card after playing each hole. In this way, the total score can be added up after 9 or 18 holes.
Swing: the whole sequence of movement of the player when making a stroke.
Tee: this word has two meanings in golf. On the one hand, it describes the teeing ground (or tee box), an area marked out, from where the first stroke is made on a hole. On the other hand, tee also refers to that little wooden or plastic object which you insert into the ground in order to raise the height of the ball for teeing off.
Top: hitting the upper half of the ball at the moment of impact. The shot is usually a poor,short and jerky one.
Trolley: a small wheeled stand that carries a player’s golf bag.
Wedge: a club for approach shots with a high loft to facilitate high short shots.